Welcome to the https://themintupdates.com. This presentation is based on direct and indirect speeches, basic rules regarding their usage and numerous examples to help foster your understanding. Read on.
In a direct speech, the same words said or written by a person are reproduced or given without any addition or subtraction(word-for-word).When put into writing, direct speeches are always in inverted commas or quotation marks.
Example: “I shall fight Nelson,” declared Raymond.
On the other hand, when the same words said or written by a person reproduced by another person, even without losing the main idea, it is said to be an indirect speech.
Example: Raymond declared that he would fight Nelson.
- A direct speech presents the exact words of a person, so when written, quotation marks are required.
- An indirect speech does not present the exact the exact words of a person so when written, inverted commas are not required.
- Note the following changes which occur in the use of pronouns as subject/object.
- Direct: I am reading
Indirect: He/she says that he/she is reading.
- Direct: “You are a fool,” said Sammy. (You as singular subject)
Indirect: Sammy said that he/she is a fool.
- Direct: “You are a fool,” said Sammy”. (You as plural subject)
Indirect: Sammy said that they were fools.
- Direct: Jane said “The book is for you”.
Indirect: Jane said the book was for him/her.
- Direct: The teacher said the food is for you. (you as plural object)
Indirect: The teacher said the food was for them.
- Direct: “There is going to be a party for us”,the pastor said.
Indirect: The pastor said that there was going to be a party for them.
- Direct: The repairer asked, ”Show me yours.” (yours as singular)
Indirect: The repairer asked him/her to show his/hers.
- Direct: The repairer asked, ”Show me yours.” (yours as plural)
Indirect: The repairer asked them to show him theirs.
- Direct: “We are all to blame”, the minister admitted.
Indirect: The minister admitted that we were all to blame.
- Direct: “My doors are open,” Enoch assured.
Indirect: Enoch assured (that) his doors were open.
- Direct: “The boy is mine” Grandpa claimed.
Indirect: Grandpa claimed that the boy was his.
- Direct: Jones admitted, “I like your shirt.” (your as singular)
Indirect: Jones admitted that he liked his/her shirt.
- Direct: The students said, “Our teacher is kind.”
Indirect: The students said (that) their teacher was kind.
- Direct: Tom admitted, “I like your outings.” (your as plural)
Indirect: Tom admitted (that) he admired their outings.
- Direct: The mangoes are ours, “claimed the children.
Indirect: The children claimed that the mangoes were theirs.
- Direct: “My mother is sick,” the boy confirmed.
Indirect: The boy confirmed that his mother was sick.
- Direct: “He has arrived,” they confirmed.
Indirect: They confirmed that he had arrived.
- Direct: “They have lost,” he confirmed.
Indirect: He confirmed that they had lost.
- Direct: He threatened, “You will die.”
Indirect: He threatened that he would die.
- Direct: “We shall succeed.” They vowed.
Indirect: They vowed that they would succeed.
- Direct: “Yes, I can do it.” He replied.
Indirect: He replied that he could do it.
- Direct: The boss reiterated, “You may resign.”
Indirect: The boss reiterated that he might resign.
- Direct: I should have been annoyed if Mary had married James,” The catechist retorted.
Indirect: The catechist retorted that he would have been annoyed if Mary had married James.
- Direct: You will have died by the end of October,” the doctor confirmed.
Indirect: The doctor confirmed that he/she would have died by the end of October.
- Direct: The armed robber shot the shop owner,” the judge affirmed. (shot as simple past)
Indirect: The judge affirmed (that) the armed robber had shot (past participle or past perfect form of the verb) the shop owner.
- Direct: “I am the messiah,” the president proclaimed.
Indirect: The president proclaimed that he was the messiah.
- NOTE: Such helping verbs (anomalous finites) as ought to, must, used to, could., would etc. are maintained in both speeches.
- Direct: “He used to come on Sundays,” the headmaster confirmed.
Indirect: The headmaster confirmed that he used to come on Sundays.
- Direct: “You must stop this,” the landlord warned.
Indirect: The landlord warned that he must stop that.
- Direct: “You ought to redesign the plan,” the consultant commented.
Indirect: The consultant commented that he ought to redesign the plan.
- Also note that ‘will’ and ‘shall’ in direct speech change to ‘would’ and ‘should’ respectively in indirect speech.
- Direct: “Will you accept my offer?” the manager inquired.
Indirect: The manger inquired if/whether he/she would accept his/her offer.
- Direct: “Shall I bring the machine?” the apprentice asked.
Indirect: The apprentice asked if/whether he/she should bring the machine.
- Moreover, use ‘should’ in the direct speech where there is no auxiliary verb in the direct speech.
- Direct: Emelia promised, “Expect me at 8 o’ clock am on Friday.
Indirect: Emelia promised that they/we/he/she should be expected at 8 o’ clock am on Friday.
- Direct: She pleaded, “Let them stay.”
Indirect: She pleaded that they/we/he/she should let them stay.
- Note the changes in the following adverbs/adverbial clauses:
- Direct: “The work must be done tomorrow”, the minister instructed.
Indirect: The minister instructed that the work must/had to be done the following/next day.
- Direct: “The dog died yesterday”, the security man confirmed.
Indirect: The security man confirmed that the dog died/had died the previous day.
- Direct: “They are coming now”, the servant hinted.
Indirect: The servant hinted that they were coming then.
- Direct: “The document was found the day before yesterday”, the registrar revealed. Indirect: The registrar revealed that the document was found two days ago.
- Direct: He hinted. “The visa will be issued this week.”
Indirect: He hinted that the visa will be issued that week.
- Direct: “They finished the exam three hours ago”, he told us.
Indirect: He told us that they finished/had finished the exams three hours before.
- Direct: The coach confirmed, “Ronaldo is playing tonight.”
Indirect: The coach confirmed that Ronaldo was playing that night.
- Direct : “The snake was buried here”, the boys pointed out.
Indirect: The boys pointed out that the snake was/had been buried there.
- Direct: “The work is to be done presently”, the contractor confirmed.
Indirect: The contractor confirmed that the work was to be done at that moment.
- This and these in direct speech become that and those in indirect speech respectively.
- Direct: “This decision will not help”, the lawyer advised.
Indirect: The lawyer advised (that) that the decision will not help.
- Direct: The pharmacist explained, “These drugs are for adults.”
Indirect: The pharmacist explained that those drugs were for adults.